Academic talks in London

Sep
24
Tue
The Course/Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 1/10
Sep 24 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course/Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 1/10 @ The University Womens Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

 

Introduction and the Court Artist

Why the arts? What is a Prince? Were they all leaders of taste? We begin by exploring some of the key themes and figures of this series before moving on to examine the qualities, experience and identity of the “court artist”.

Sep
25
Wed
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 1/20
Sep 25 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 1/20 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera lectures.

In this series of paired lectures and walks will look at the ways in which particular groups, often professions, have shaped and been shaped by London. Each theme could provide a course of its own, so we will proceed through a series of snapshots at the activities of these groups and individuals at key moments in the formation of the city.

Lecture Immigrants

London is a city of incomers, and has been since its foundation by the Romans nearly two millennia ago. The way Londoners speak, eat, the trades they have practiced and the way they dress have been formed by the crucial additions to the population which have given the city its character.

2 October 2019
 

The week after the lecture, there will be a conducted walk in Spitalfields and nearby, home successively to Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis

Sep
26
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: the Life of the Universal Man 1/10
Sep 26 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: the Life of the Universal Man 1/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Beginnings, Schooling And Influences

We will look at the unconventional circumstances surrounding the birth of Leonardo, his family background, his father’s profession and how that impacted on Leonardo’s early education. We will examine his early training in the Florentine workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio; look closely at the latter’s techniques and working practices, the students who passed through this workshop and what possible impact all this may have had on the future development of Leonardo’s art. We will end with his departure from the Verrocchio workshop.

Oct
1
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 2/10
Oct 1 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 2/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

The Glory of the Lagoon

Far from the romantic city of our imagination, Renaissance Venice was a superpower feared across the Italian peninsula. Its vast territories gave it unique contact with eastern and western culture which, from Jacopo Bellini to Titian, mingle in the art commissioned by those selected families who vied with each other to provide the next Doge.

Oct
3
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: the Life of the Universal Man 2/10
Oct 3 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: the Life of the Universal Man 2/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Masters At Work: Techniques And Mediums

We will examine Leonardo’s decisions behind his choice of techniques and mediums, including his use of metal point, black chalk, red chalk, pen and ink and wash, and his early use of oil paint. We will look at exquisite examples of all these, asking what were their uses and how they would affect Leonardo’s choices.

Oct
8
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 3/10
Oct 8 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 3/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Splendour in the Marches

Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, was in many ways the ideal Renaissance ruler – courageous soldier, benevolent statesman and cultivated and lavish patron of the arts. We will concentrate on the paintings, architecture, manuscripts and sculpture associated with Federigo, but also cast a glance at his arch‐enemy Sigismondo Malatesta of Rimini, “more wild beast than man”.

Oct
9
Wed
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 3/10
Oct 9 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 3/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera lectures.

In this series of paired lectures and walks will look at the ways in which particular groups, often professions, have shaped and been shaped by London. Each theme could provide a course of its own, so we will proceed through a series of snapshots at the activities of these groups and individuals at key moments in the formation of the city.

Lecture Merchants

London is a city conceived for trade. Sited at the lowest easily bridgeable part of the Thames, a conduit leading to the Continent. From Roman times the Port of London was vital to the prosperity of the country at large, and at one stage the Port was the largest in the world. Other forms of trade have also flourished, with London established as a financial centre from the 13th century onwards.

Walk
The week after the lecture (16 Oct) there will be a walk in the City and close to the Thames
Oct
10
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 3/10
Oct 10 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 3/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Sculpture And The World Of The Antique

Although no sculptures by Leonardo exist, we will examine his influences from the antique world, his sculptural design ideas and how they would play into the narrative of the Renaissance aesthetic. We will also consider the drawings that were made to demonstrate how he might have constructed these artworks.

Oct
15
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 4/10
Oct 15 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 4/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Poets and Soldiers

The d’Este rulers of Ferrara created an environment of taste and magnificence, brick and marble, of the finest paintings, in a city which they made a model of early urban planning and is now a Unesco World Heritage site. Much of their collections is now dispersed, but we will consider their impact as well as that of the sculpture, architecture and painting which remain. In contrast, the Sforza of Milan were terrifying warlords but also commissioned some of Leonardo’s finest work during his 18 years at their court.

Oct
17
Thu
The Course / Leonard da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 4/10
Oct 17 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonard da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 4/10 @ The Course at The University Womens Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

The Art And The Meaning Of Portraiture

We will look at Leonardo’s interest in portraiture; his own image and what that might tell us about the man as well as portraits of ruling families, including La Giocondo or Lisa Gherardini, now known as the Mona Lisa. We will also examine his obsession with the Madonna and child grouping, his sources for these compositions and what he hoped to achieve with his constant revisiting of this subject.

Oct
22
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 5/10
Oct 22 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 5/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Smoke and Mirrors

Mantua, small and muddy, was one of the least powerful of Italian city states but through extraordinary and judicious patronage of the arts, the Gonzaga dynasty presented itself as the equal of all contemporaries. Alberti in architecture, Pisanello and Mantegna in painting created an image of splendour which made the city the envy of its contemporaries.

Oct
24
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 5/10
Oct 24 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 5/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Inside The Mind Of Man – Grotesques, Personality & Caricature

Leonardo’s mind and its supposed impact on physiognomy and ultimately personality will be the subject for this session. We will look at a wide variety of his drawings of physiological types and ask if these can tell us about the social mores of Leonardo’s times and ultimately how the explorations into the human psyche affected Leonardo’s finished works such as The Last Supper.

Oct
30
Wed
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 5/10
Oct 30 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped A City 5/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In this series of 10 lectures and 10 accompanying walks, ww will look at the ways in which particular groups, often professions, have shaped and been shaped by London. Each theme could provide a course of its own, so we will proceed through a series of snapshots at the activities of these groups and individuals at key moments in the formation of the city.

Architects, like no others, have of course shaped the way the city looks. The history of their interactions is a complex one: from Wren to Seifert, politics has often determined who should build, and what they should build, as much as competence, aesthetics or need.

On 6 November, there will be an accompanying walk around Lincoln’s Inn.

Oct
31
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of a Universal Man 6/10
Oct 31 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of a Universal Man 6/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Obsession With Nature, Anatomical & Experiment

Leonardo was obsessed with how everything worked and the close relationship between man and nature. Here, we will look at his exploration of the workings of nature and his attempt to understand these processes and thus understand the soul of man. We will look at examples of anatomical drawings that demonstrate Leonardo’s unflinching eye and ability to investigate areas of human anatomy that many would find repulsive.

Nov
5
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 7/10
Nov 5 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 7/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

A “Restive and Independent City”

Florence was a proud Republic, so the position of the Medici family was equivocal. Officially “first among equals”, they trod a fine line in asserting their rule without alienating the democratic rhetoric of the state, and their discerning and generous commissions to some of the greatest creative figures of the age were calculated to give political reassurance while subtly reminding the people of the munificence, wisdom and virtue of the first family.

Nov
7
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 7/10
Nov 7 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 7/10 @ The Course at the University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Drawing Becomes Art

The emergence of drawing as an art form has always been hard to pinpoint. In this lecture, we will look at Leonardo’s drawings and examine how and why this art form might be attributed to him. We will also look at the Burlington Cartoon in London’s National Gallery, its life, history and production, and ask why this unfinished work has been seen as the earliest example of drawing as art and why it holds such a special place in the Gallery’s collection.

Nov
12
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Renaissance 8/10
Nov 12 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Renaissance 8/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Princes of the Church

Renaissance popes were not only princes of the church but rulers of vast secular domains, determined to recreate for Rome the glories of pagan antiquity. None was more remarkable than Julius II who, in a reign of barely 10 years, rebuilt a dilapidated city, commissioned Michelangelo, Raphael and Bramante, and laid the foundations of St Peter’s Basilica as we know it today.

Nov
13
Wed
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped a City 8/20
Nov 13 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / London: The People Who Shaped a City 8/20 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera lectures.

In this series of 20 paired lectures and walks, we will look at the ways in which particular groups, often professions, have shaped and been shaped by London. Each theme could provide a course of its own, so we will proceed through a series of snapshots at the activities of those groups and individuals at key moments in the formation of the city.

Lawyers

The law and its execution have provided some of the city’s great dramas. The practitioners of law, with their own enclave of London, preserve the rituals of behaviour (and especially dress) which have lasted centuries.

The week after the lecture (20 November) there will be an accompanying walk near the Royal Courts of Justice.

 

Nov
14
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 8/10
Nov 14 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: The Life of the Universal Man 8/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

Signature Projects

We will look in detail at some of Leonardo’s major projects: the Last Supper, The Madonna of the Rock and The Battle of Cascina and discuss how these works were realised, what was the thinking behind them and how do they compare with works by his contemporaries? We will also look at the work of collaborators on these projects and ask how much is theirs and how much Leonardo’s and why do we care?

 

Nov
19
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 9/10
Nov 19 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 9/10 @ The Course at the University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Merchants, Monks and Guilds

The patronage of princes inspired others. Wealthy urbanites and the Church, individuals and groups, increasingly used art to confirm their commitment to Renaissance values of piety, charity and scholarship.

Nov
21
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci : Life of the Universal Man 9/10
Nov 21 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci : Life of the Universal Man 9/10 @ The Course at the University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Music, Opera and Literature Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

The Art Of War & Mechanical Engineering

In the middle and latter part of Leonardo’s life, he became increasingly in demand for his designs and this would see him ultimately working for powerful patrons such as Isabella d’Este and Lodovico Sforza. We will look at his complex mechanical designs for flying machines, underwater breathing apparatus and ultimately weapons of mass destruction. Why did Leonardo carry out such work and what were his thoughts on these?

Nov
26
Tue
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 10/10
Nov 26 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Princely Patronage in the Italian Renaissance 10/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Started in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera Lectures.

In Princely Patronage, a series of 10 lectures, we will examine how for nearly two centuries, some dozen city states waged war and their leaders competed to create spheres of both authority and magnificence. Artists from Italy and abroad flourished, moving from court to court, sharing influences and creating ever more sumptuous environments. This series examines the role of the ruling families, their spectacular personalities and projects, and the values of the age in driving this artistic flowering.

Influence

Italy created the model in which connoisseurship became the distinguishing mark of the enlightened and refined ruler. From Krakow to London, monarchs presented themselves through their patronage of the arts, the forms taken from Italy and often executed by artists from the peninsula itself, responsible for spreading the vocabulary of classicism and power across the European courts.

Nov
27
Wed
The Course / London: the people who shaped a city (10/20)
Nov 27 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / London: the people who shaped a city (10/20) @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Literature, Music and Opera lectures.

In this series of 20 paired lectures and walks, we will look at the ways in which particular groups, often professions, have shaped and been shaped by London. Each theme could provide a course of its own, so we will proceed through a series of snapshots at the activities of those groups and individuals at key moments in the formation of the city.

Engineers

Engineers, often overlooked in favour of more obviously glamourous professions, have made the city operate – the first underground railway, a pioneering sewerage system and a succession of fabulous bridges. London, sitting on clay rather than a bed of rock has provided as many challenges as opportunities in its construction.

The week following the lecture (4 December) there will be an accompanying walk along the South Bank of the Thames.

Nov
28
Thu
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: Life of the Universal Man 10/10
Nov 28 @ 10:45 am – 12:45 pm
The Course / Leonardo da Vinci: Life of the Universal Man 10/10 @ The Course at The University Women's Club

Established in 1994, The Course offers Art History, Music, Opera and Literature Lectures.

We have all heard of the great master of the Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci. Speculation regarding the true life and meaning of his work has been rife for centuries. Books such as the Da Vinci Code and many others only serve to confirm and equally to confuse us. So how much do we really know? How did he become such a great artist, how famous was he in his own lifetime, was he rich and where and how did he learn his craft? This series of lectures will give you an insight into the life of this great artist; charting the beginnings of his career, the highs and the lows, and finding out just how and why he became the ultimate and universal genius we now regard him.

His Legacy, School, Influences And Followers

In our final session, we consider artists such as Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (about 1467 – 1516) and Francesco Melzi (1493 – 1570) with whom Leonardo worked and trained and compare their works with those of the Master. We will also look at his followers such as Antonio Allegri (active 1494 – 1534), known as Correggio. What did they learn and what can we learn from these works? We will examine the misattributions surrounding Leonardo’s collaborators and finally the current obsession with Leonardo culminating in the sale of the Salvator Mundi.